Detection of xenobiotic properties of pesticides in the soil environment



L. I. Solomenko

Анотація


Today it is extremely important to estimate the interaction of pesticides with the environment, search for the criteria of Evaluation of pesticides safety, which are included in the list of allowed to protect plants in agrophytozenonoses.

The purpose of our research was to conduct environmental assessments of soils for the renewal of sensitive biological species, according to the reaction of which it is appropriate to determine the concentration of xenobiotics in soil, which are dangerous for the ecosystem.

The subject of our research was agriphytocenosis: soil – the black soil typical lightly loamy in the conditions of forest-steppe zone. The scheme of research: 1 variant – fallow (control); 2 variant – sunflower without depositing plant protection products; 3 variant – sunflower with the use of herbicide. The soil's phytoxicity is determined by the method of  O. Berestetskyi. Microbiological research  of the soil to determine the number of pedotrophic microorganisms and micromycetes were performed according to generally accepted methods.

As a result of the research, the xenobiotic properties of the Zelek Super Herbicide were detected, which may be manifested in the aftermath of this drug in the crop rotation of the agrocenosis. In the system of "herbicide - soil environment - microorganisms" micromixets were significantly more sensitive than pedotrophs. A direct dependence of the growth of the number of micromycetes under the action of herbicide and phytotoxicity of the soil medium was established.

The results of our investigation show that the utilization of Zelek Super herbicide can affect the degradation of the soil, increasing the general toxicity of the soil environment. Perhaps, that is why in the countries of the EU the preparation is listed as «not allowed».

All things considered, the increase of general toxicity of the soil, caused by micromycetes appearance, can be attributed to the criteria of the estimation of the safe use of the preparations of  chemical plant protection. 

Keywords: xenobiotics, pesticides, soil environment, general toxicity, phytotoxicity, microorganisms, micromycetes, pedotrophic organisms

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