Селекційна цінність зразків нуту за посухостійкістю в умовах східного Лісостепу України

Н. О. Вус, Л. Н. Кобизєва, О. М. Безугла



N. O. Vus, L. N. Kobyzeva, O. M. Besuhla


Chickpea is a drought-tolerant grain legume, but drought-induced loss of yield can range from 30 to 100%. Evaluation of accessions for tolerance to this factor is of great importance for further breeding. To study the diversity of collection accessions for response to drought, we applied an index approach that is widely used by foreign scientists. Using seven the most common ones: drought susceptibility index, tolerance index, mean productivity, yield stability index, yield index, stress-tolerance index and the geometric mean of productivity, we evaluated 89 accessions from the basic chickpea collection of the National Center for Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine (NCPGRU): 40 kabuli accessions and 49 desi accessions. We determined the breeding value of these accessions in terms of drought tolerance. To confirm the data obtained, in subsequent years (2008-2015), a model population of chickpea accessions, which represented accessions with highly-expressed important breeding and economic characteristics, was evaluated. They are eight kabuli accessions: Dniprovskyi Vysokoroslyi’, Smachnyi’, Rozanna’, Pamiat’, Khakhut’, Triumf’ (Ukraine), Hybrid 25’ (Russia) and a local accession from Azerbaijan (UD05000196); and seven desi accessions: breeding varieties Krasnokutskiy 123’ (Russia), Luhanets’ and Koloryt’ (Ukraine) and local accessions UD05000263 (Ukraine), UD05000022 (Georgia) UD05000001 (Iran), and ΣSK-population (Turkey). Analysis of the data showed that the average yield in the arid year was lower compared to the optimal one: 325 g/m2 and 476 g/m2, respectively, for kabuli accessions and 426 g/m2 and 449 g/m2, respectively, for desi accessions. Losses of yield averaged 30.33% for kabuli type and 2.25% for desi type. The median indices allowed us to compare drought tolerance of accessions belonging to the two morphotypes. Thus, the lower medians of DSI and TOL and the higher medians of MP, YSI, YI, STI, and GMP in desi accessions characterize this morphotype as more drought-tolerant than kabuli type. Accessions with > indices significantly exceeding the medians were considered as sources of drought tolerance. We identified 20 sources of drought tolerance, ten of each morphotype. Among kabuli accessions, Ukrainian accessions prevailed: six breeding varieties: Smachnyi’, Rozanna’, Ornament’, Dniprovskyi Vysokoroslyi’, Antei’ and Dobrobut’; two accessions were from Canada; one local variety UD0500196 was from Azerbaijan; and one accession was from Hungary. Among desi accessions, accessions from India were predominant: four breeding lines from ICRISAT: NEC 2326, K 468, EC 12409, F 61; three varieties were from Russia: Krasnokutskiy 123’, Sovkhoznyy 14’, Brown Rozena’; one accession was from Canada, Greece and Italy each. Comparison of the characteristics of the selected sources of drought resistance allowed preliminary distinguishing references of drought resistance for the both morphotypes. Among kabuli accessions, according to the levels of four drought resistance indices (DSI, TOL, YSI, YI), variety Dniprovskyi Vysokoroslyi’ (Ukraine) was identified; among desi accessions, variety Krasnokutskiy 123’ (Russia) was distinguished by four indices (MP, YI, STI, GMP). These accessions can be involved in breeding programs on creating highly adaptive chickpea varieties. Over the period of further studies from 2008 to 2015, there were various degrees of aridity. These years were grouped in pairs "arid - optimal"; four year pairs were selected for comparison: 2009 - 2008, 2010 - 2008, 2011 - 2012, and 2014 - 2015. The drought intensity was 0.03 - 0.41. Index comparison was conducted between 2008 (optimal conditions) and 2010 (dry conditions), and the drought intensity of between them was 0.41. Evaluation and comparison of drought tolerance of the model population chickpea accessions for the set of indices confirmed high drought tolerance of varieties Dniprovskyi Vysokoroslyi’ (Ukraine) and Krasnokutskiy 123’ (Russia) and allowed us to consider them as references of drought tolerance in the conditions of the Eastern Forest-Steppes of Ukraine for kabuli and desi morphotypes, respectively.

Thus, evaluation of the collection chickpea accessions for the seven indices of drought tolerance found that desi accessions had higher drought tolerance than kabuli accessions. We identified 20 sources of drought tolerance for the Eastern Forest-Steppe Ukraine: ten of each morphotype. These accessions can be involved in breeding programs for on creating competitive chickpea varieties, which will be adapted to the conditions of the Eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The references of drought tolerance were selected: for kabuli type – variety Dniprovskyi Vysokoroslyi’ (Ukraine); for desi - Krasnokutskiy 123’ (Russia). These varieties originate from arid regions: Dniprovskyi Vysokoroslyi’ was created at the Institute of Grain Crops (Dnipro); Krasnokutskiy 123’ – at Krasnokutsk Research station of the All-Union Research Institute of Plant Breeding (Russia, Saratov region).

Key words: chickpea, drought tolerance, Eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, tolerance index, susceptibility index, drought tolerance index, drought tolerance reference

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