Порівняння збереженості поросят та інтенсивності їх росту у період дорощування при різних способах подачі та видалення повітря

В. М. Волощук, В. М. Герасимчук

Анотація


COMPARISON OF THE PRESERVATION OF PIGLETS AND INTENSITY OF THEIR GROWTH IN THE PERIOD OF REARING AT DIFFERENT WAYS OF AIR GIVING AND AIR REMOVAL

V. M. Voloshchuk, V. M. Herasymchuk

 

The question on influence of the way of air giving on a level of dust and bacteriological pollution, on a level of harmful gases, on the growth intensity of animals and the preservation of live-stock especially at changing seasons of a year is still   opened. Exactly for that it was carried out the experiment on determining influence of the way for creating microclimate on preservation, growth and development piglets on rearing under conditions of one enterprise.

The researches were conducted under conditions of the high technological industrial pig breeding enterprise TOV “Demis-Agro” in Dnipropetrovsk region. Determining the difference of a level of mortality, preservation and the growth intensity during carrying out rearing because of changing a level of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, dust and bacteriological pollution of air at using different ways of air giving and air removal from premises performed on piglets received from sows of the genotype Galaxy 900 of French Company “France-Hybrid”. Piglets were housed in the group machineries in an amount of 30 heads on the plastic aperture floor. Piglets were fed from the self-feeder, with free access to feed-stuff.

Into the first premise air is given through the room of previous preparation where entry air is heated in special radiators in winter, and cooled in the warm season due to water which is pump up through tubes of this radiator. After previous heat preparation air reaches into special air pipeline made with concrete and located underground. At the   expence of temperature of ground, air is additionally cooled in the warm period of a year or heated in the cold one. From underground air pipelines, air is giving to animals through special canals, the exit of which is located on the height of1.2 mover the floor. Air removal is carried out with the under floor space.

Into the second premise air is given from environment and giving to animals without previous heat preparation and from premise air is removed through the ventilation mines on the ceiling.

The system of air giving is operated by the device for control of microclimate which has the temperature sensor and depending on temperature in the premise the speed of revolutions of ventilators and the degree of opening wall exhaust valves.

The level of dust and bacteriological pollution of air in the premise was determined by the method of V.F. Matusevych, and the saturation with ammonia and hydrogen sulphide was carried out by the electrochemical method with the help of the portable multicomponent gas analysator АНКАТ-7664 Mikro.

As a result of the analysis of data received in the first and second premises it has been determined the fact that as a whole for a season from one technological group with an amount of 600 heads, the mortality was more in winter and autumn in the second premise, and it was higher in spring and in summer in the first premise. While rejecting piglets because of the disparity between growth and development was higher in the first premise in winter and in summer and in the second one it was higher in spring and in autumn. Thus, during a year the total preservation of piglets was higher in spring and in autumn and lower in winter and in summer in the first premise than in the second premise.

Such divergence of data received in the first and the second premises can be explained by the fact, that in the transitional period it is difficult to create the proper conditions of microclimate in the second premise because air is given into premise without proper previous preparation. In the first premise, the other way round, it is difficult to stabilize temperature indexes on all area of the premise, because of flowing down cooled air from apertures of tubes, that’s why it causes the appearance of chill and pulmonary diseases more than in the second premise. Changing the level of rejecting in the first and the second premises is a result more aggressive seasonal behavior of piglets from different letters, at placing them in one machinery, at conquering better zone and more comfortable place for the rest.

To do the analysis of data about the level of growth intensity of piglets in the first premise and in the second one it was taken 90 heads (three machineries with 30 heads in each) and observed for changing their weight during the period of rearing.

After the analysis of data of average daily gains and the change of total weight of piglets at setting on rearing and at transferring on fattening it has been determined that independently on season of a year in the first premise piglets were increasing the weight of body higher than in the second premise because at lower air giving the temperature in the premise was higher in cold and transitional period but lower in warm season. The removal of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, dust and bacterium from premise happened better than at side air giving. To the moment of transferring on fattening the average weight of piglets in the first premise probably (P>0.01..P>0.001) differed from average weight of piglets in the second premise, except an autumn season when differences between average weight of piglets were not found out. In our mind, namely previous heat preparation of air, lower giving fresh air and its removal from the grate expanse furthered to average annual stabilizing temperature in the premise and as a whole more comfortable conditions for all health.

The average daily gain of piglets during a year in the first premise changed from 330.15±1.49 (in summer) to 535.00±2.12 (in autumn), while in the second premise it changed from 270.04±2.20 (in summer) to 500.00±2.11 (in autumn). During a year the indexes of average daily gain in piglets which were housed in the premise with lower giving previously thermal prepared air were probably higher (P>0.001) than in piglets which were housed in the premise with side air giving from environmental. Depending on the change of average daily gains it was changed total weight of piglets at transferring on fattening and average gain of weight for the period of rearing. It is necessary to notice that in the first premise the weight of piglets in winter-spring and autumn period was within 30.72..33.91 kg, and in summer period it reached only22.49 kg. At that time in the second premise average weight of piglets in spring and in autumn was 32.90 and31.90 kg, relatively, and in winter and in summer live weight at transferring on fattening reached only 23.80 and19.22 kg, relatively. As shown in mentioned data the total weight of piglets independently on season of a year was higher in the first premise than in the second premise. The live weight differed the less in transitional period – 3.0% (in spring), and 0.7% (in autumn), and in winter and in summer the weight of piglets in the first premise was higher on 22.5% (in winter) and 14.5% (in summer).

It has been determined the fact that in the first premise temperature was higher in winter, in spring and autumn, but in summer it was lower than in the second premise. Concerning to the level of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide and bacteriological pollution of air, their amount in the second premise was higher than in the first premise, and dust pollution was insignificantly lower only in spring period. From our standpoint it is one of key factors of the comfort of housing piglets and the influence on realization of genetic potential.

So, the lower system of air giving into premise further the evident decrease of air pollution with harmful gases, dust and bacteriological cells relatively air in the premise where side air giving through walls valves were carried out directly from environment.

Creating more comfortable conditions of housing furthered to increase average daily gains and live weight of piglets to the moment of transferring on fattening. At the expense of difference in a gain of piglets in premises with the different system of air giving only in experimental groups (consist of 90 heads in each) for the period of rearing it was additionally received605.7 kgin winter,68.4 kgin spring,297,9 kgin summer and36 kgin autumn. From our standpoint, it is connected with peculiarities of systems of creating microclimate, that need the next search of data and their analysis to determine real reasons of the change of growth intensity not only in different premises, but in the same premises in different seasons of a year.

Keywords: pig breeding, microclimate, piglets on rearing, preservation, average daily gains, weight of piglets, microflora, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide


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