Економічна та енергетична оцінка ефективності вирощування лучних трав на осушених торфовищах лісостепу

В. М. Штакал

Анотація


ECONOMIC AND ENERGY EVALUATION OF  EFFICIENCY OF GROWING OF MEADOW GRASSES IN DRAINED PEAT  OF FOREST- STEPPE

V. M. Shtakal

 

The actuality of these investigations lies in the necessity of finding high- yielding varieties and species of cereal grasses for the organization of the hay conveyor on drained peatlands on their use, which  would be effective in market conditions. The aim of the research was finding out the efficiency technologies of growing meadow grasslands from the economic and energy point of view for the cultivation of new high-yielding varieties. In researching were used calculation method of research.  The study was conducted in the period 2014-2017 in plot №3 of the drained peat soils of the floodplain of the Supoy river of Panfilska Experimental Station of NSC "Institute of Agriculture NAAS". Soils of experimental plots - deep peatlands.

Total area of plot is 40 m2, accounting is 28 m2, for four times repetition. Weather conditions for years of research were close to the norm, except  for 2017, that was very dry. For sowing  were  used zoned varieties of cereal grasses. Mineral fertilizers in doses Р45К120and N90 Р45К120  were input at the beginning of the growing season annually.

The economic feasibility of  growing of meadow grasses in drained peat was determined by researchs. Growing of meadow grasses is highly profitable For yield of dry mass  in the average for four years at the level of 8.1-1.15 on the background of Р45К120and 9.4-13.2 t / ha on the background of N90 Р45К120.Growing of meadow grasses is highly profitable for the yield of dry mass an average for four years, at a level of 8.1-1.15, on the background of Р45К120 and 9.4-13.2 t / ha on the background of N90Р45К120  and hay, respectively, 9.5-13.5 and 11.0-15.4 t/ha. In this way, conditional net profit was received respectively 9-15 and 10-16 thousand UAN/ ha. The profitability of production was better at the background of the RK and stood  at 126-185%, and for full mineral fertilizers - only 94-145%. The prime cost for 1 ton of feed units was lower for phosphorus-potash fertilizer and stood at 980-1200 UAN. Analyzing the data of the economic assessment of the additional input of nitrogen fertilizers in the dose N90 noteworthy  that their introduction increased the conditionally net profit (by some 500-800 UAN / ha), but the profitability of production decreased by 30-40% and the prime cost of production increased by 1 ton of feed units for 50-150 UAN. Therefore should be considered that an additional introduction of nitrogen fertilizers on organogenic soils has low efficiency.

As for the economic efficiency of at grass crops different ripening time, so the best results were received of the middle-ripening grass. There were received the highest conditionally net profit (13-16 thousand UAN/ ha) and the profitability of production (130-185%), as well as the unit of prime cost  production was lower (980-1050 UAN per 1 tonne of feed). The best among individual variants were the pure crops reed canary grass (Digraphis arundinacea L.), meadow fescue grass (Festuca pratensis) variety Lyudmyla, Awnless brome grass (Bromus inermis)variants Arsen, and a mixture of these types with orchardgrass variety Muravka.Early-grassy grass with sowing of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) variety Kyyivska rannya-1 with Awnless brome grass (Bromus inermis) and   red fescue grass (Festuca pratensis) variety  Lyudmyla or meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis) and the late ripening grass with the sowing orchardgrass variety Ukrainka and their mixturewith Timothy-grass (Phleum pratense L.) and bent grass (Agrostis gigantea Roth) – inferiored in some of those indicators. Indicators of conditionally net profit at the same time stood 12-14 thousand uan/ ha, profitability - 120-160% and the prime cost of 1 ton feed was 1000 to 1200 uan.  The worst economic indicators were received after growing meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis) variety Sarnenskyi rannii, bent grass (Agrostis gigantea Roth) mixed grass crops of the perennial rye- grass (Lollium perenne) and mixed of orchardgrass meadow with orchardgrass read. In this way, conditionally net income was only 8-10 thousand UAN / ha, profitability - 80-125%.

The analysis of the energy efficiency of technologies for growing of meadow grasses in drained peat showed positive results (Table 3). Therefore for energy expenditure in phosphorus-potassium background 16-18 GJ / ha and for full mineral fertilizers -25-28 GJ / ha were received  respectively 90-108 and 110-130 GJ / ha of exchange energy. Regardless, the output of the exchange energy for introducing a full mineral fertilizer is slightly higher in compared to phosphorus and potash fertilizer, so the energy efficiency of the technologies for input Р45К120 was higher and stood at 5,1-5,5, while for input of N90 Р45К120  was only 4.1 -4.4. Energy expenditures for growing 1 tonn of feed units per full mineral fertilizer were also higher than for phosphorus-potash fertilizers and stood at 2.8-3.2 MJ / ha. This is a consequence of  that the peat soils, despite for their prolonged use in culture, are high-powered mobile compounds of nitrogen. As a result, the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers, due to their high energy intensity, into the meadow grasses in drained peat  is not effective.

As for energy efficiency of growing meadow grasses of different ripeness, so the best indicators were received on midle-ripe grasses with sowing of  reed canary grass (Digraphis arundinacea L.), fescue grass (Festuca orientalis -L yudmyla), Awnless brome grass (Bromus inermis) - Arsen, and mixtures of these species and varieties. The coefficient of energy efficiency for application Р45К120stood  at 5.37-5.48 and on background N90Р45К120- 4.25-5.06 respectively. Coefficient of energy efficiency (CEE) decreased for 5,21-5,32і 4,07-4,37 respectively, on  condition with sowing of the early-ripening and late-ripening  grasses and energy costs  for growing  1 tonn of feed units  increased from 2.3- 2.8 to 2.5-2.9 GJ / ha.

Key words: mixed grass crops, grass crops variety mixes, drained organogenic soils, economic and energy efficiency, profit, profitability, output of exchange energy, costs, CEE-coefficient of energy efficiency


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